Study Questions: Review these before the Final Exam.

Review first half of course as well, as the final is cumulative.

(See syllabus).

1. What is “grading on the curve?”
2. Suppose a test has a mean of 60, standard deviation of 10, normally distributed with Xmax = 90 and Xmin = 10. What percentage of each grade would be given by “grading on the curve?” where each test score is divided by Xmax and grades are assigned such that Xi/Xmax >> .9, .8, .7, .6 cutoffs for A+, A, B, C, D.?

Suppose a person uses real grading on the curve and with Normal curve with z > 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 cutoffs for A+, A, B, C, D.

3. Formulae for (a) standard score of Yi, (b) for correlation coefficient between X and Y.
4. If Jack needs to score above the 84th percentile on the SAT-Q, what score does he need if mean is 500 and standard deviation is 100?
5. Calculate the correlation between X and Y, given the data below. Hint: First find the means, variances, and standard deviations of X and Y. Then find the z-scores of Xi and Yi.
 Case Xi Yi 1 5 5 2 1 7 3 5 5 4 3 9 5 5 5 6 9 3 7 7 1 8 5 5 9 5 5 10 5 5

1. Write formulae for: (a) correlation coefficient, (b) regression-prediction equation, predicting Y from X. (c) variance of residuals from prediction.
2. What are the two different meanings of “regression to the mean” according to (a) Galton’s original definition and (b) Pearson’s definition.
3. If X-bar = Y-bar = 100, sX = sY and if rXY = 0.5, predict Yi-hat if Xi = 130.
4. What are the empirical IQ correlations between: (a) father-daughter, (b) father-son, (c) father-mother
5. If mother’s IQ is 70, predict the father’s IQ.  What is the mean IQ?  What is the standard deviation of IQs of husband’s IQ, given wife’s IQ = 70.
6. George is 10 years old and scores on the IQ test at the level of the average 11.5 year-old.  What is his IQ?  What percentage of 10-year olds are more than 3 years behind?  What percentage are 1.5 years or more behind. What percentage are more than 3 years ahead?
7. Suppose the correlation between gender and spatial IQ is .10.  What do you conclude from this?
8. What are the empirical correlations in IQ between: (a) parent-child, (b) grandparent-grandchild, (c) husband-wife, (d) sister-sister.
9. Fill in the following matrix for (a) heredity theory (h = 1), (b) environment theory (h = 0), and (c) empirical results:
 Together apart unrelated sibs DZ twins MS twins

1. Which theory is closer to the data?
2. What is the estimated value of h?
3. What would the variance of IQ be if everyone had the same heredity?
4. What is the reliability of the Stanford-Binet IQ test? How is it measured?
5. What is the validity of the Stanford-Binet IQ test? How is it measured?
6. Define test bias.  Cite evidence of bias, if any.
7. Heredity-Enviornment debate.  Is one position “politically correct”?
8. Define: All-or-none law.  Membrane potential, Mueller’s law of specific nerve energies.
9. What are the major physiological techniques, and what are their limitations?

1. Split Brain patient: put a fork in the right hand and spoon in the left hand. Both are under a curtain.  What does the person say to (a) What is in your left hand? (b) what is in your right hand?
2. Split-brain patient focuses on the +, flash the screen: Brain + Waves
3. What does the person say he or she saw? What does the person point to with the right hand? What does the person point to with the left hand?

4. Blind Spot:   Why do the + and o have to be reversed to find the blind spot in the left and right eye.  RE fixates on + and the o disappears.  Why is the distance between o and +  proportional to the distance from the eye to the page?
5. What are the “neutral colors?”
6. What is color constancy?
7. What is the Gelb illusion?
8. How does a TV show a black color?
9. What is Wallach’s theory of colors, and how does it explain color constancy, Gelb illusion, TV colors, color of the moon at night and in the day?
10. What is Wallach’s theory of (neutral) color perception?
11. According to Wallach, when will color constancy hold?
12. According to Wallach, when will color constancy fail?
13. How does Wallach’s theory explain the Gelb illusion?
14. What is the moon illusion? What is Ptolemy’s theory of the moon illusion?
15. What is “size constancy” and how does it work?
16. What is the Mueller-Lyer illusion?  How does it work?
17. What is the Ames room illusion, and how does it work?
18. What are the cues to subjective depth or distance?
19. How does stereo vision work?
20. What were the results of Milgram study? What were the conclusions?
21. What did Asch’s conformity study show?
22. What was Zimbardo’s “prison study” and what did it show?