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1. Someone makes the claim that "all abusers (perpetrators who have abused children) were abused themselves (i.e., were victims of abuse)." Which of the following sets of cases need to be checked to test this assertion?

a. abusers and victims b. abusers and nonabusers. c. nonabusers and victims. d. abusers and nonvictims. e. nonabusers and nonvictims.

2. Someone says, "All boys have an Oedipal complex, which is a subconscious desire to kill one's father and marry one's mother." What cases can be checked to test this assertion?

a. boys and those with Oedipal complexes. b. boys and those without Oedipal complexes. c. girls and those with Oedipal complexes. d. girls and those without Oedipal complexes. e. none of the above. There is no way to know who does not have an Oedipal complex, since it is subconscious.

3. Suppose someone says "A if and only if B." Which is the smallest set of cases that need to be checked to test the assertion?

a. A and not-B. b. not A and B. c. A, B, and not B. d. A, B, and not A. e. A, B, not A, and not B.

4. When introductory psychology students are given such problems as "every card with an even number on it has a vowel on the other side," what do they say is the way to test the conjecture with four cards (1, 2, A, B)?

a. most students choose the right answer. b. most students choose the same wrong answer. People can communicate, but they are not logical. c. most students choose the wrong answer, and people do not agree with each other about how to test the proposition. d. about half choose the right answer, and about half choose the same wrong answer, 2A. e. both a and d.

5. Conjecture: "Every card with an even number on one side has a vowel on the other side." There are 4 cards, 1, 2, A, B. What is the smallest set (i.e., list of cards) we need to check (i.e., turn over) to test the conjecture?

a. 2, B b. 2, A c. 1, A d. 1, B e. 1, 2, A

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