The Effects of Beverage Choice, Date Location, and Datersí Ages on Sexual Dating Behaviors1

 

Traci L. Blalock

 

California State University, Fullerton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Abstract

 

The current study examined the perceptions of the likelihood of sexual intercourse occurring on a date given the beverage consumed, the date location, and the datersí ages.Participants were asked to rate how likely sexual intercourse would be on a Likert-type scale from 1 (very, very unlikely) to 9 (very, very likely).It was hypothesized that participants would feel that the younger daters, going to a bar, and consuming alcohol would be more likely to have sexual intercourse during the date.The results of this study supported the hypothesis, however, 22 year-olds were seen as more likely to have sexual intercourse than 18 year-olds.Additionally, the relative weight averaging model was used to determine what the most heavily weighted factor was in the participantsí decisions.It was determined that Drink was the most important factor, followed by Age and the Location.Possible explanations for the results are given and suggestions for future research are presented.


Introduction

 

Alcohol and sexual behaviors are inextricably linked in American culture.It is common for people to justify their casual sexual behaviors as a result of being intoxicated.While a causal relationship cannot be proven, research has shown a strong correlation between alcohol usage and sexual behaviors.Research has revealed that female college students who drank heavily were more likely to have multiple sexual partners, engaged in sexual intercourse more frequently, and have sexual intercourse earlier than those who consumed less alcohol (Zucker, Battistich & Langer, 1981).Additionally, Desiderato and Crawford (1995) found that college students who had multiple sexual partners drank more heavily than those with a single sexual partner.Since it is clear that alcohol is correlated to sexual behaviors, the factors influencing the perceptions of these behaviors must be examined.

The connection between alcohol and sexual behaviors may be due in part to expectancies that have been created about alcohol.According to the expectancy model, which grew out of the social learning model, ď . . . the estimated likelihood or expectation that each action will be reinforced in part guides a personís actionsĒ (Velez-Blasini & Brandt, 2000).While studies have shown that alcohol actually suppresses genital arousal (George & Norris, 1991), the common belief that alcohol increases arousal supports the idea that alcohol is perceived as a sexual stimulant based upon its perception rather than its actual effects (George, Cue, Lopez, Crowe & Norris, 1995).ďAccording to this view, perceived alcohol ingestion activates the expectancy.Once activated, the expectancy, in turn, fosters a self-fulfilling prophecy which presumably shapes ongoing behavior toward the expected outcome (e. g. Ďalcohol makes me feel sexyí)Ē (George, Lehman, Cue, Martinez & Lopez, 1997, p. 631).Consistent with the expectancy model is the common belief that alcohol lowers inhibitions and judgment, which may also contribute to sexual behaviors while under the influence of alcohol.††† The expectancy model reveals that perceptions about alcohol usage are extremely influential in determining behavior.

A prominent study by George, Gournic, and McAfee (1988) examined the perceptions of female sexuality when beverage choice and drink purchaser were manipulated.Their results revealed that the female drinker was perceived as being more sexual due to alcohol than the male drinker (George, et al., 1988).The results also revealed that the female consuming an alcoholic beverage was perceived as more likely to engage in sexual intercourse than the female who drank cola (George, et al., 1988).Subsequent studies confirmed that a female drinking alcoholic beverages was perceived to be more likely to engage in sexual intercourse than a female drinking cola (George, et al., 1995; Velez-Blasini & Brandt, 2000).

A common factor in the aforementioned studies is the link between alcoholic versus non-alcoholic beverage choice and sexual dating behaviors.However, the researchers in these studies differ in their beliefs about what other factors influence perceptions of sexual behaviors.Garcia and Kushnier (1987) chose to give background information, in the form of a bogus counselorís file, which included attractiveness, grade point average, age and interview notes from the counselorís sessions with the student.The results revealed that those female students that were attractive, had low grade point averages, and consumed alcoholic beverages, were perceived as more likely to engage in sexual behaviors than their unattractive, high achieving, and non-alcohol drinking counterparts (Garcia & Kushnier, 1987).Other researchers examined other factors influencing sexual dating behaviors such as beverage choice (George, et al., 1988; Velez-Blasini & Brandt, 2000), male versus female date initiation (Muehlenhard, Friedman & Thomas, 1985), level of intoxication (George, et al., 1997; Corcoran & Thomas, 1990), and sex of the drink purchaser (George, Gournic & McAfee, 1988).

The vignette method for studying perceptions of alcohol on sexual behaviors and attitudes has been used repeatedly (Corcoran & Bell, 1990; George, et al., 1988, Velez-Blasini & Brandt, 2000).The vignette has proven to be an effective way to manipulate the behaviors of the hypothetical characters in the study.In their 1988 study, George, et al., included in their descriptions information about the attractiveness and nervousness of the vignette characters.Corcoran and Bell (1990) decided, conversely, to present both characters in the same way, and to exclude any extraneous information in the vignette.Since it is highly possible that female attractiveness or nervousness about the date could influence the participantsí perceptions of the characters (Corcoran & Bell, 1990), all irrelevant information regarding the characters in the vignette should be avoided as to not confound the variables being examined in the vignette.

††††††††††† Velez-Blasini and Bradnt (2000) conducted a study that examined participantís sex, datersí ages, setting of the date, and beverage choice as factors influencing the perceptions of sexual behaviors in dating situations.The datersí ages were either 21 or 35 years, and the setting of the date was either in a restaurant or a bar.Beverage choice of the female was manipulated:either cola (non-alcoholic) or an alcoholic beverage.The male in this study always drank beer.The results of the study revealed a main effect for alcohol consumption with those females drinking alcoholic beverages being perceived as more likely to engage in sexual intercourse during the date (Velez-Blasini & Brandt, 2000).There was also a main effect for the location of the date.Those characters having their date in a bar were perceived as more likely to engage in sexual intercourse (Velez-Blasini & Brandt, 2000).The results of this study also revealed a significant interaction between the datersí ages, the date location, and the type of beverage consumed.The female dater who was younger (21), going to a bar for her date, and consuming alcohol was perceived as the most likely to end up having sexual intercourse during the date (Velez-Blasini & Brandt, 2000).However, the participants were primarily college-age students, so it is possible that their perceptions of alcohol induced behavior are limited to their own experiences.

††††††††††† This study is an attempt to replicate and extend the research conducted by Velez-Blasini and Brandt (2000).More levels of the independent variables were added for age to determine if there was a significant difference in the perceptions about sexual dating behaviors.The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of sexual dating behaviors based upon datersí ages, type of beverage consumed, and location of date.Participants were asked to judge how likely it was that the two daters would engage in sexual intercourse during the course of their date.It is predicted that the expectancy model will be strengthened by revealing that common perceptions of alcohol as lowering inhibitions and hindering judgment will strongly influence perceptions of sexual dating behaviors.It is predicted that the characters in the vignette depicted who consume alcoholic beverages on their date, are younger in age, and have their date in a bar, will be perceived as more likely to engage in sexual intercourse during the date.

W0*S0+Wdrink*Sdrink+Wlocation*Slocation+Wage*Sage

††††††††††††††† W0+Wdrink+Wlocation+Wage

 
††††††††††† In order to examine which of the three factors is most strongly weighted in judgment, the relative weight averaging model will be used.The formula for the model is:

 

 

Where Wdrink, Wlocation, and Wage are the relative weights of drink, location, and age, and Sdrink, Slocation, and Sage, are the scale values of drink, location and age.When the info is not known its weight is zero.This model implies that there are no two or three way interactions between the factors.The model also states that the effect of one factor will be less when additional factors are presented and when in the presence of more important factors.The use of this model will help to determine the relative importance of drink, location, and age when people make decisions about perceived likelihood of sexual intercourse.

Method

 

††††††††††† Participants in this study were asked to judge how likely it was that two single people would engage in sexual intercourse during the course of their date.They were asked to judge based on the date location, age of the people, and the beverage they choose to drink on their date.

Instructions

††††††††††† The participants in this study were asked to imagine that two single people met at a party being held by a mutual friend and that they agreed to go out on a date the following weekend.Based on the age of the people, the location of the date and the type of drink consumed on the date, the participants were asked how likely it was that the two single people would engage in sexual intercourse during the course of the date.Full instructions and stimuli can be viewed on the website:http://psych.fullerton.edu/mbirnbaum/psych466/tb/tbsurvey1.htm

Stimuli & Design

††††††††††† Each trial was presented in the format of the following example:

Drink:hard liquor

Location:restaurant

Age:unknown

 

The 45 combinations were constructed from a 3 x 3 x 5, Drink by Location by Age, factorial design in which the 3 levels of Drink were unknown, soft drink, or hard liquor; the 3 levels of Location were unknown, restaurant or bar; and the 5 levels of Age were unknown, 18, 22, 30, or 42.

Procedure

††††††††††† Participants were asked to read through the instructions and complete the warm-up trials before proceeding to the experiment.The stimuli were presented in a random order, which was created through FactorWizRB (Birnbaum, 2000).All participants completed the same questionnaire and were allowed to work at their own paces.

Participants

††††††††††† The participants in this study consisted of 188 students from California State University, Fullerton, and people who completed the survey via the Internet.The sample consisted of 65 males, 120 females, and 3 who did not answer this item.The age of the participants varied from 17 to 50 years, with a mean age was 20.6 years.While the majority of the participants in this study were college students (84.5%), there were also participants who were college graduates (10.6%), graduate students (1.0%) and those possessing graduate degrees (2.1%).The nationality of the participants was overwhelming American (79.3%), but there were small percentages of participants coming from sixteen other countries ranging from Afghanistan to Vietnam.

Results

††††††††††† Table 1 displays the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse with all three factors, Drink, Location and Age, being examined.Across the top row of the table, age is displayed and down the first column location and drink are shown.Inside the table, the individual cells show the mean judgment values for daters at various ages whose date took place at either a bar or a restaurant, and who drank either a soft drink or hard liquor.The results of this study supported the hypothesis that younger daters, going on their date to a bar, and consuming alcohol would be perceived as the most likely to have sexual intercourse during their date.The combination judged the most likely, on average, to have sexual intercourse were 22 year-old daters who went on their date to a bar and drank alcohol.Those daters judged least likely to have sexual intercourse were 18 year-old daters who went on their date to a restaurant and drank a soft drink (see Table 1).Interestingly, 22 year-olds were perceived as being the most likely to engage in sexual intercourse regardless of the location of their date (bar or restaurant).

Table 2 displays the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse with Age and Location being examined within all conditions of Drink.As in Table 1, the ages run across the top of the table and the locations are presented down the column.Inside the cells of the table, the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse are presented for a particular location and a particular age of dater, regardless of what they had to drink.The table reveals that those judged least likely, on average, to engage in sexual intercourse were 42 year-old daters, regardless of the location of the date.

Table 3 is similar to Table 2, except that Age and Drink are examined for all of the different levels of the factor Location.The table cells represent the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for a particular aged dater drinking a particular beverage, regardless of the location of their date.This table shows that when drink and age were examined, 22 year-olds were judged most likely to engage in sexual intercourse regardless of the drink consumed during the date.

Table 4 collapses all of the different levels of the factor Age, to examine only Drink and Location.The cells of the table represent the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse when a certain drink is consumed at a particular location, regardless of the age of the daters.As expected, choosing to drink hard liquor on the date caused participantsí perceptions of likelihood of sexual intercourse to have a larger mean value than when they chose to drink a soft drink.This was true for both locations (restaurant and bar) and the effect of drink caused higher judgments of likelihood when the date took place in a bar.Table 4 also reveals higher mean judgments when either drink (hard liquor or soft drink) was consumed in a bar rather than in a restaurant.

††††††††††† A three-way within-subjects analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate the effects of drink, date location, and datersí ages on the perceived likelihood of sexual intercourse occurring at some point during the date.The drink, location, and datersí ages main effects, as well as the two and three-way interactions were examined using the significance value for Greenhouse-Geisser since the sphericity assumption was not met for several of the main effects and interactions.The results revealed significant main effects for all three of the factors:Drink, F (2, 186) = 539.944, p <. 001; Location, F (2, 186) = 213.041, p < .001; and Ages, F(4, 184) = 27.596, p < .001.There were also significant two-way interactions between Drink and Location, F (2, 186) = 15.214, p < .001; Drink and Ages, F (2, 186) = 5.690, p < .001; and Location and Ages, F (4, 184) = 2.827, p = .006.The three-way interaction between Drink, Location, and Ages was also significant, F (2, 186) = 2.257, p = .007.

The relative weight averaging model was fit to the mean judgments to determine what the most important factor in the participantsí decisions about the perceived likelihood of sexual intercourse.From the model, Wdrink= 12.92, Wlocation= .50, and Wage=1.40, so Drink was, overwhelmingly, the most important factor in the decision.The model also indicated that Age was a more important factor than Location, however, the difference between these two factors was not as large.Examination of Figures 7 through 9 reveals that drink was the most important factor when participants were making their decisions about the likelihood of sexual intercourse.Figure 8 plots mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for a DLA (Drink by Location by Age) design as a function of Location, with separate curves for the main effect of Location, the two-way interactions between Drink & Location and Location & Age, and the three-way interaction between Drink, Location and Age.Filled and hollow circles, triangles, diamonds and squares, represent the mean judgments for each of the interactions when the location was a restaurant or bar, and solid and dashed lines represent the predictions for these cases.Figure 8 reveals that the prediction line and data points are steeper for factors LA (Location & Age) than for DL (Drink & Location).This means that drink is the more important factor in this two-way analysis.Additionally, the slopes of the lines decrease when additional factors are added to the analysis.Drink when considered alone, has the steepest slope, but the slope decreases when Age and Location are also considered.This is consistent with the relative weight averaging model.

Figure 9 plots mean judgment of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DLA design as a function of Age, with separate curves for each of the main effects, two-way and three-way interactions.As in Figure 8, mean judgments are represented by the data points, and predictions are represented by the solid and dashed lines.Figure 9 shows that LA (Location & Age) is steeper than DA (Drink & Age), and thus DA is more heavily weighted.Therefore, Drink is the most heavily weighted factor.Once again, the model is supported, because the slopes of the lines decreases as more factors are analyzed together.

Figure 7 is similar to both Figures 8 and 9, but it looks at the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse in a DLA design as a function of Drink, with separate curves for each of the main effects, two-way, and three-way interactions.Again, the mean judgments are represented by the data points, and the predictions made by the relative weight averaging model are represented by the solid and dashed lines.Analysis of Figure 7 reveals that DL (Drink & Location) is steeper than DA (Drink & Age), so it is determined that Age is a more significant factor in this decision making model than location.Therefore the importance of the factors in this study was:

DRINK > AGE > LOCATION

††††††††††† A second three-way within-subjects analysis of variance was run to determine the relationship between the factors when the unknown level of each factor was removed from the analysis.In the first analysis of variance, the unknown level of each factor was retained in the analysis of the data, which was the explanation for why there were significant two-way and three-way interactions.However, in order for the relative weight averaging model to be predicting most accurately, there should not be any two-way or three-way interactions between the factors when the unknown level of each factor is removed.The results revealed significant main effects for all three of the factors:Drink, F (2, 186) = 667.859, p < .001; Location, F (2, 186) = 144.390, p< .001; and Age, F (2, 186) = 9.078, p < .001.There were significant two-way interactions between Drink and Age, F (2, 186) = 15.146, p < .001 and between Location and Age, F (2, 186) = 3.745, p = .012.There was no significant two-way interaction, however, for Drink and Location, F (2, 186) = 3.721, p = .055.There was also no significant three-way interaction between Drink, Location and Ages, F (2, 186) = .830, p = .477.

Figure 4 plots mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DA design as a function of Age, with separate curve for each different drink.The DA design refers to those judgments where Drink (D) and Age (A) were specified but Location was unknown.Filled squares and circles show mean judgments when the Drink was hard liquor and soft drink, respectively; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.Figure 4 reveals that the model slightly underestimates mean judgments for 18 and 22 year-old daters drinking hard liquor, and slightly underestimates mean judgments for 30 and 42 year-old daters drinking a soft drink.The two prediction lines (for hard liquor and soft drink) should be parallel, according to the model, but they converge slightly.The tests are powerful enough, however, to show this, and it is the cause of the significant two-way interaction between Drink and Age.However, examination of the mean judgments and the modelís predictions in Figure 4 reveals that the model is predicting well.

There is also a significant two-way interaction between Location and Age.Figure 6 plots mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the LA design as a function of Age, with a separate curve for each different Location.The LA design refers to those judgments where Location (L) and Age (A) were specified, but Drink was unknown.Filled squares and circles show mean judgments when the Location was bar and restaurant, respectively; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.Figure 6 reveals that the model overestimates mean judgments for 18 year-olds in a bar and underestimates mean judgments for 22 year-olds in a bar.The predictions for 30 and 42 year-olds are consistent with the reported mean judgments.Additionally, the model underestimates mean judgments when 18, 30, and 42 year-olds have their date in a restaurant and overestimates the mean judgments when the 22 year-olds have their date in a restaurant.Once again, in order for the model to be predicting perfectly, the prediction lines for bar and restaurant need to be parallel.The power of the statistical test shows that the lines converge slightly by reporting a significant interaction between Location and Age.However, examination of Figure 6 reveals that model is still accurately predicting mean judgments despite the slight deviations.

Figure 5 plots the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DL design as a function of Location, with a separate curve for each different Drink.The DL design refers to those judgments where Drink (D) and Location (L) were specified, but Age was unknown.Filled squares and circles show mean judgments when the Drink was hard liquor and soft drink, respectively; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.Figure 5 reveals that the model is predicting fairly accurately when hard liquor is consumed on the date, with only a slightly underestimation by the model when hard liquor is consumed in a restaurant.Additionally, the figure shows that there is a slight underestimation by the model when a soft drink is drank in a bar on the date.However, statistical tests revealed no significant interaction between Drink and Location, which means that the prediction lines in the model do not significantly deviate from parallel.

††††††††††† The model was also supported by statistical tests that revealed a non-significant three-way interaction between Drink, Location and Age.Figure 1 plots the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DLA design when a soft drink was consumed on the date as a function of Age, with separate curves for each different Location.The DLA design refers to those judgments where Drink (D), Location (L), and Age (A) were all specified.Filled diamonds and hollow circles show mean judgment when Location was bar and restaurant, respectively; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.Figure 2 plots the mean judgments for the DLA design when hard liquor was consumed on the date as a function of Age, with separate curves for each different location.Correspondingly to Figure 1, the filled diamonds and hollow circles show mean judgments when Location was bar and restaurant, respectively; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.Figure 3 places Figures 1 and 2 on a single page so comparisons can be made more easily between the two figures.As is shown in Figure 1, the model slightly overestimates the likelihood of sexual intercourse between 22 year-old daters drinking soft drinks in a bar, and slightly underestimates the likelihood of intercourse between 30 or 42 year-old daters in a restaurant drinking soft drinks.Figure 2 reveals that the model underestimates the likelihood of sexual intercourse when 18 and 22 year-old daters are drinking hard liquor in a bar, and slightly underestimates the likelihood when these same aged daters are drinking hard liquor in a restaurant.The model is predicting fairly accurately for the 30 and 42 year-old daters when drinking liquor in either location (bar or restaurant).While the mean judgments do differ slightly in some situations from the modelís predictions, the insignificant three-way interaction reveals that the prediction lines do not significantly deviate from parallel and thus, the model is supported.

Discussion

††††††††††† The results of this study are consistent with those of Velez-Blasini and Bradnt (2000).In this study, there was a main effect for the location of the date, with the bar being perceived as a location where the progression to intercourse would be more likely, and a main effect for drink, where the alcoholic beverage was seen as being a predictor of the likelihood of sexual intercourse.Velez-Blasini and Bradntís (2000) study found that the younger daters (21 in their experiment), going to a bar, and consuming alcohol, were perceived as the most likely to engage in sexual intercourse during the date.In concurrence with Velez-Blasini and Bradnt (2000), there were significant main effects for each of the factors in this study: drink, date location and datersí ages.There were also significant main effects for all three of the factors when the unknown level of each factor was removed.Comparison of mean judgment data and predictions indicates that the model is closely predicting the perceptions of likelihood of sexual intercourse.

The results also revealed that those daters who were younger (i.e. 18 or 22) were perceived as more likely to have intercourse than those daters who were older (i.e. 30 or 42).However, what was unexpected was the slight rise in likelihood from 18 to 22.It was revealed that 22 year olds were the more likely to engage in sexual intercourse than the 18 year olds, regardless of the location or drink.It was also determined that these 22 year olds were more likely to engage in sexual intercourse, regardless of the other factors, than the 30 year olds and 42 year olds.While this could certainly be a strong indication that this is the age when many youth start drinking and engaging in sexual behaviors, it may also be due to the mean age of the sample (20.6 years).Perhaps it is the 22 year-old daters in the vignette that the participants could most easily relate to, and have thus underestimated the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the other levels of age in the vignette (18, 30, & 42).To test this idea, one could test older samples and divide the data to determine if the age of the participants made a difference in their judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse occurring during the date.

Another possible explanation for the rise in mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual activity from 18 to 22 year-olds is the legal drinking age in the state most of the participants were from.Californiaís legal drinking age is 21, and despite the indication in the instructions of the experiment that the legal drinking age where the date was taking place was 18, it is possible that participants did not overlook their own background for this study.It is possible that is was more difficult for participants to make an accurate judgment of the 18 year-old, going on a date to a bar, and drinking hard liquor because, normally, this would not be a viable scenario.While it is certainly possible that the perceptions of likelihood of sexual intercourse could actually be rising from 18 to 22 years of age, it would be interesting to conduct this same experiment in a place where the legal drinking age is 18 years of age to see if participantsí own biases had an effect on this segment of the study.

As is the case for all studies using the vignette method, caution must be used when applying the results to real life since it is unclear what the relationship is between real-life responses and vignette responses.While this study found that drink was the most important factor in the perception of the likelihood of sexual intercourse occurring on the date, it is possible that the participantsí responses to actual situations might be different than when they are responding to vignettes.It is also possible that the length of the experiment caused them to tire and to pay less attention near the end of the survey.However, this seems unlikely because those questions that had the highest mean judgment for sexual intercourse occurring on the date were near the end of the questions.Had participants tired and started answering without thinking about the drink, location, or ages, then it would be expected that these questions near the end would not show the responses that they did.To test for the effects of order, however, different questionnaires could have been created using FactorWizRB (Birnbaum, 2000).By rearranging the order of the questions, while leaving the order in which the data return intact, any serial position effects could have been corrected.

It would be useful in future research to examine the effects of different drinks, such as hard liquor, beer, wine coolers, and soda, to see if there are significant differences in the way that people view the likelihood of sexual intercourse occurring when varying strengths of drinks are consumed.Another area to be examined is the quantity of alcohol drank on the date.It is highly possible that one drink would have an entirely different impact on perceptions of likelihood of sexual intercourse than three drinks, or five drinks.Another interesting factor to look at in future research would be the location of the date.Perhaps location would play a greater role in the judgments about the likelihood of sexual intercourse if other locations such as a party, a religious based social function, or an evening at one of the daterís apartments were included.††

Future research should also attempt to expand the participant pool beyond the college-aged student.While this is certainly the most convenient way to recruit participants, it is suspected that this population might have biased attitudes about sexual intercourse and alcohol that do not generalize to the general public.Conducting this study on the Internet and obtaining older participantsí opinions about alcohol and sexual behaviors would most likely change the results found in this study, especially those regarding the age factor.If these different factors are taken into account in future research, then it is likely that it will become clearer how different factors effects the perceptions of sexual dating behaviors.


References

Birnbaum, M. H.(2000).Introduction to Behavioral Research on the Internet.Upper Saddle River:Prentice Hall.

Corcoran, K. J., & Thomas, L. R.(1991).The influence of observed alcohol consumption on perceptions of initiation of sexual activity in college dating situation.Journal of Applied Psychology, 27,(2), 7-11.

Desiderato, L. L., & Crawford, H. J.(1995).Risky sexual behavior in college students:Relationships between number of sexual partners, disclosure of previous risky behavior, and alcohol use.Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 55-68.

Garcia, L. T., & Kushnier, K.(1987).Sexual inferences about female targets:The use of sexual experience correlates.Journal of Sex Research, 23, 252-272.

George, W. H., Gournic, S. J., & McAfee, M. P.(1988).Perceptions of postdrinking female sexuality:Effects of gender, beverage choice, and drink payment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 18, 1295-1317.

George, W. H., Lehman, G. L., Cue, K. L., Martinez, L. J., Lopez, P. A., & Norris, J.(1997).Postdrinking sexual inferences:Evidence for linear rather than curvilinear dosage effects.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 629-648.

George, W. H., & Norris, J.(1991).Alcohol, disinhibition, sexual arousal, and deviant sexual behavior.Alcohol Health and Research World, 15, 133-138.

Muehlenhard, C. L., Friedman, D. E., & Thomas, C. M.(1985).Is date rape justifiable? The effects of dating activity, who initiated, who paid, and menís attitudes toward women.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9, 297-310.

Velez-Blasini, C. J., & Brandt, H. J.(2000).Expectancies, setting, age and beverage choice as predictors of sexual behaviors in hypothetical dating situations.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 9, 1954-1976.

Zucher, R. A., Battistich, V. A., & Langer, G. B.(1981).Sexual behavior, sex-role adaptation and drinking in young women.Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 42, 457-465.


Footnotes

1††††††††††††† The author would like to thank those who were helpful in the design, writing and testing of subjects for this experiment.Dr. Michael Birnbaum, of California State University, Fullerton was instrumental in helping to design the study and in the application of the relative weight averaging model to the data.The students of Psychology 466, Spring 2001, were helpful in collecting the data from the undergraduate psychology subject pool.


Table 1

Mean Judgments of Likelihood of Sexual Intercourse as a Function of Drink, Location, and Datersí Ages

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Designs

DLA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average of means

 

age

 

 

 

 

Location

drink

18

22

30

42

Grand Total

Bar

Hard liquor

7.27

7.37

6.79

6.59

7.00

 

Soft drink

4.45

4.45

4.27

4.18

4.34

bar Total

 

5.86

5.91

5.53

5.38

5.67

restaurant

Hard liquor

6.40

6.52

6.00

5.93

6.21

 

Soft drink

3.58

3.89

3.82

3.76

3.76

restaurant Total

 

4.99

5.21

4.91

4.84

4.99

Grand Total

 

5.42

5.56

5.22

5.11

5.33

 


Table 2

Mean Judgment of Likelihood of Sexual Intercourse as a Function of Location and Datersí Ages

 

 

 

 

 

 

drink

(All)

 

 

 

 

designs

LA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average of means

age

 

 

 

 

location

18

22

30

42

Grand Total

bar

5.38

6.10

5.42

5.39

5.57

restaurant

4.48

4.53

4.41

4.32

4.44

Grand Total

4.93

5.31

4.91

4.86

5.00

 


Table 3

Mean Judgment of Likelihood of Sexual Intercourse as a Function ofDatersí Age and Drink

 

 

 

 

 

 

location

(All)

 

 

 

 

designs

DA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average of means

age

 

 

 

 

drink

18

22

30

42

Grand Total

Hard liquor

6.48

6.58

6.06

6.02

6.29

Soft drink

3.85

4.06

3.90

3.89

3.92

Grand Total

5.17

5.32

4.98

4.96

5.11


Table 4

Mean Judgments of Likelihood of Sexual Intercourse as a Function of Location and Drink

 

 

 

 

 

age

(All)

 

 

designs

DL

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average of means

drink

 

 

location

Hard liquor

Soft Drink

Grand Total

bar

6.54

3.84

5.19

restaurant

5.64

3.19

4.41

Grand Total

6.09

3.51

4.80


Table 5

Weights and Scale Values of Various Factors Using the Relative Weight Averaging Model

W0

Wdrink

Wlocation

Wage

24.16

12.92

0.50

1.40

soft drink

2.25

-4.12

16.60

hard liquor

9.63

56.24

21.41

 

 

 

13.67

 

 

 

12.25


Figure Caption

Figure 1.Figure plots the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DLA design (soft drink only) as a function of Age, with separate curves for each different Location.Filled diamonds and hollow circles represent mean judgments when the Location was bar and restaurant, respectively; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.

Figure 2.Figure plots the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DLA design (hard liquor only) as a function of Age, with separate curves for each different Location.Filled diamonds and hollow circles represent mean judgments when the location was bar and restaurant, respectively; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.

Figure 3.Figures 1 and 2 placed on the same page for comparisons.

Figure 4.Figure plots the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DA design as a function of Age, with separate curves for each different Drink.Filled squares and circles represent mean judgments when the Drink was hard liquor and soft drink, respectively; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.

Figure 5.Figure plots the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DL design as a function of Location, with separate curves for each different Drink.Filled squares and circles represent mean judgments when the Drink was hard liquor and soft drink, respectively; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.

Figure 6.Figure plots the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the LA design as a function of Age, with separate curves for each different Location.Filled squares and circles represent mean judgments when the Location was bar and restaurant, respectively; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.

Figure 7.Figure plots the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DLA design as a function of Drink, with separate curves for each different main effect, two-way and three-way interaction.Hollow diamonds, hollow circles, solid triangles, and solid squares represent mean judgments in the DLA, DL, DA, and D designs; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.

Figure 8.Figure plots the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DLA design as a function of Location, with separate curves for each different main effect, two-way and three-way interaction.Solid diamonds, hollow squares, solid triangles, and hollow circles, represent mean judgments in the DLA, DL, LA, and L designs; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.

Figure 9.Figure plots the mean judgments of the likelihood of sexual intercourse for the DLA design as a function of Age, with separate curves for each different main effect, two-way and three-way interaction.Solid diamonds, solid squares, hollow circles, and solid circles represent mean judgments in the DLA, LA, DA, and A designs; solid and dashed curves show predictions for these respective cases.