Brashares, H. J., & Catanzaro, S. J. (1994). Mood regulation expectancies, coping
responses, depression, and sense of burden in female caregivers of Alzheimer's
patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 437-442.
Negative mood regulation (NMR) expectancies and coping were examined among female caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients. Stronger NMR expectancies corresponded with less severe symptoms of depression and less use of avoidant coping. Results were consistent with Kirsch's (1990) response expectancy theory: Simply having an optimistic belief in their ability to cope appeared to make subjects feel better, independent of actual coping strategies used by them. In fact, active coping was positively associated with depression in this sample when NMR expectancies were statistically controlled. These results support Kirsch et al.'s (1990) conclusion that engaging in coping, without being confident that the coping will be successful, is unlikely to reduce symptoms of distress.